Materialism is flawed because it recognizes the emptiness of imagination, abstraction, concept, value, thought, and idea, but fails to recognize the emptiness of perception as well. All material, object, form, duality, cause, effect, and phenomena, are also empty. Science reveals that what materialists refer to as "material" is empty of any of the things it is perceived to be. It is but one aspect of the subjective universe, and no less valid than other aspects.

Materialism is unsound, because, as science is now indicating, material itself is an illusion of perception, and is empty.

Naturalism is false because it is also an illusion of perception, but also because it stipulates regularities, laws, and predictable happenings throughout the universe of perception, that are themselves a product of the perception itself. Yet, if these qualities are a product of the system, and have no overlap to other systems, or second-order influence over the system, then what becomes "natural" is contextual, depending on the behavior of any given system, and "supernatural" as behavior that violates the behavior of a system (a contradiction), and thus is just another way to talk about the validity, and invalidity of ideas about materialistic perceptions.

They themselves cannot exist metaphysically, or non-contingently.

For this reason, materialism, and naturalism miss the mark, because they infer things about the rules of a perception, and imagine that they hold objective, metaphysical, non-contingent existence, when they do not.

All is empty.